Medical Reasons for a Caesarean Section

New Born Baby

When talking about childbirth, it is easy to imagine a scene where a woman is struggling with pain at the delivery table, but if there are any problems with the baby or mother, a “caesarian section” is performed.

According to a sample survey by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare on medical institutions, the percentage of caesarean section births in recent years is 1 in 5 people. However, it seems that many pregnant women try hard to resist the Caesarean section, because some do not want any surgeries done on their body, and others do not want to give birth while “unconscious”.

Also, among the mothers who gave birth through C-section, there are those who said that they were not mentally prepared for the sudden caesarean section that was done in the middle of delivery. There are those who even blame themselves for “failing” to deliver normally.

So this article aims to correct the assumptions about the caesarean section.

What is a Caesarean Section?

The Caesarean section is a surgical operation. First, spinal anesthesia that anesthetizes only from the stomach to the lower side is applied from the back. While under anesthesia, a cut is made under the belly button vertically or horizontally (depending on the surgeon or circumstance) about 10 to 15 cm, to take the baby out.

Half anesthesia allows you to be conscious of the procedure, so you can listen for the baby’s sound clearly when he/she is born, and you can face the whole process while awake. However, depending on the circumstances, it may also require general anesthesia.

After taking out the baby and placenta, the inside of the uterus is cleaned and sewn with melting thread, and the operation is over.

After surgery, a uterine contraction agent is used to help the uterus recover. Within the following days, you can walk to the nursing room and you will be encouraged to move actively to speed up the recovery of the wound.

Although many mothers take about one and a half months longer to recover than natural delivery, there are no problems if there is no abnormality detected during your medical examination.

When is a caesarean section necessary?

There are two types of cesarean section, a “scheduled caesarean section” that is decided in advance, and an “emergency caesarean section” which is decided between labor and childbirth, or during childbirth. So which circumstances will dictate the type of caesarean section that will be done?

Scheduled caesarean section

This is decided when it is judged that there is a risk in spontaneous delivery at the stage of regular medical examination.

Main reasons:

  • Breech birth – A breech birth is when a baby is born bottom first instead of head first. 
  • When the placenta partially or completely blocks the uterine opening in the pre-placenta.
  • When the uterine fibroid is obstructing the uterine mouth, it is thought that spontaneous delivery is difficult due to the mother’s sickness
  • When multiple fetus pregnancy is considered to have a great risk to the mother’s body.
  • When the baby’s head is larger than the size of the pelvis, the pelvis is deformed, etc. When the baby cannot get through the pelvis due to child-head pelvic failure.
  • When pregnancy hypertension syndrome or the like causes the placenta’s function to decline during childbirth, or when the baby’s development is not good.

Emergency caesarean section

If some abnormality occurs before parturition or during parturition and it is necessary to take out the baby as soon as possible.

Main reasons:

  • When uterine effusion and vagina do not stretch even when labor comes, or when it does not spread enough for the baby to pass through.
  • When it is judged that it is better to take out the baby as soon as possible before the expected birth date at the time of medical examination.
  • Birth labor is weak, and the effects are not seen or observed even with medical treatment.
  • When the umbilical cord wraps around the baby’s neck during delivery and there is insufficient oxygen, and when the baby’s heartbeat begins to fall.
  • When the rotation does not go well and there is a fear that the baby will continue to be pressed in the middle of the birth canal
  • When the baby or mother gets in a dangerous condition such as premature placenta exfoliation, etc.


There are many moms who have the intention of giving birth naturally, who are not able to catch up mentally when it suddenly becomes necessary for them to have a caesarean section. Even if it is scheduled for a Caesarean section, if you do not have surgery experience, or fear is constantly on your mind, you may experience a sense of frustration with “not being able to give birth on your own”.

But Caesarean section is just one of the ways to give birth safely, and is done for the baby and mother’s safety. Believe in your doctor, relax, and welcome your baby happily. What matters is not the “birth”, but “to give birth safely”.

If you feel uneasy by all means, you may want to tell your doctor why you are uncomfortable with having a caesarean section or the procedure of surgery. Consult with the medical team in advance, so that they can help you feel secure during surgery.

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