Do you ever wonder about the proper nursing care plan for ectopic pregnancy? Come on, everybody wonders how the nursing care plan for ectopic pregnancy should go. Knowing the proper nursing care plan for ectopic pregnancy does not only benefit the baby but also assists mommy in her pregnancy.
An occasion worth celebrating is being pregnant. Women who want to find the fulfillment they’ve always desired should witness the miracle of a new life developing inside a woman. No matter how carefully you handle a pregnancy, there are still times when it is jeopardized. Since nurses work to promote life and health, it is imperative that we inform our patients about potential pregnancy issues.
When the fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, it is called an ectopic pregnancy. The implantation might take place in the fallopian tube, the cervix, the abdomen, or the surface of the ovary. The typical distal part of the fallopian tube is where fertilization takes place. Following the union, the zygote starts to divide and develop. However, the zygote is prevented from passing the entire length of the tube by a number of circumstances. It settles there, and there, rather than in the uterus, is where implantation occurs.
Risk Factors of Ectopic Pregnancy
An ectopic pregnancy could develop for a number of reasons, including:
- Existing infection, such as pelvic inflammatory disease or salpingitis. Because the scar from these infections may induce adhesion in the fallopian tube, women who encounter reproductive system infections are more likely to have ectopic pregnancies.
- Wounds after a tubal operation. These scars create an adhesion that prevents the fertilized egg from moving in the direction of the uterus.
- Congenital defects. Ectopic pregnancy may result from reproductive system physical flaws such as fallopian tube strictures.
- Uterine cancer. The proximal end of the tubes may be under pressure from a tumor, which would prevent the fertilized egg from entering the uterus.
- Intrauterine device use IUDs are contraceptive implants that are put into a woman’s uterus and have the shape of an inverted T. If it is injected after conception, it can prevent the migrating fertilized egg from getting to the best location for implantation.
- Smoking. Compared to non-smokers, women who smoke frequently had a greater prevalence of ectopic pregnancy.
- Recently performed in vitro fertilization. A zygote may move more slowly after in vitro fertilization, which could enhance the likelihood of tubal or ovarian implantation.
- Ectopic pregnancy in the past. Since there is a 10% to 20% probability of another ectopic pregnancy, women who have experienced one are recommended to wait a year before trying to conceive.
Signs and Symptoms
Before the pregnancy ruptures, it is critical that the pregnant lady and the healthcare professional recognize any warning signs and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy. It would be challenging to spot an ectopic pregnancy at first because the majority do not exhibit any odd signs and symptoms at the time of implantation.
- Sharp stomach ache. A pregnant woman who may be experiencing an ectopic pregnancy can move quickly, which could cause the anterior uterine support to be pulled and result in abdominal pain.
- Cervical spotting. Although it would be unusual for this to happen together with the pain, this could be an indication that the ectopic pregnancy is about to rupture.
- Lower region is experiencing a sharp stabbing ache. One of the signs that an ectopic pregnancy has already ruptured is this one.
- Uterine bleeding. After the ectopic pregnancy has ruptured, bleeding occurs. Because certain fetal materials and blood may be ejected into the pelvic cavity, the amount of bleeding cannot be fully established due to the tearing of the blood vessels and their destruction.
Before making a diagnosis, tests to rule out an ectopic pregnancy must be carried out:
- Abdominal ultrasound. The most frequent method of identifying an ectopic pregnancy is an early prenatal ultrasound.
- Imaging via magnetic resonance. This is an additional method for identifying ectopic pregnancies, and it is safer for pregnant women to use than a CT scan.
As soon as a woman with an ectopic pregnancy is taken to the emergency room, medical management should begin. Even a brief window of time would make a significant impact in the patient’s safety.
- Methotrexate administration. Folic acid antagonist methotrexate is used in chemotherapy. It eliminates quickly developing cells like trophoblasts and zygotes. This would continue to be given up until a negative hCg titer was obtained.
- Mifepristone administration. an abortion drug that results in the tubal implantation site peeling off. Both of these treatments would prevent surgical scarring and leave the tube intact.
- Intravenous medication. When the ectopic pregnancy has already ruptured, this procedure would be used to restore intravascular volume due to hemorrhage.
- Taking a sample of blood. Blood crossmatching and blood type must be completed in advance of a blood transfusion because a significant amount of blood would be lost. The pregnant woman’s hemoglobin levels would be assessed using the blood sample.
- When an ectopic pregnancy implants, no unique symptoms are typically evident.
- The typical pregnancy symptoms would manifest, including amenorrhea, nausea, and a positive pregnancy test.
- The trophoblast would be large enough to tear the fallopian tube during 6–12 weeks of pregnancy.
- Following would be bleeding, the amount of which would depend on the number and size of the injured blood vessels.
- Once a rupture has taken place, the woman is likely to experience a sharp, stabbing pain in the bottom quadrant, followed by little vaginal bleeding.
- A woman with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy may exhibit shock symptoms, such as a rapid, thread pulse, rapid breathing, and low blood pressure, when she arrives at the hospital.
- The pregnancy would have ended if there was a reduction in hCg levels or progesterone levels.
Both the mother and the zygote are at risk when there is an ectopic pregnancy. It would be impossible to save the zygote, no matter how much we would like to. This is because it has expanded outside the typical place of implantation. Only thorough information about ectopic pregnancy and methods for preventing it from happening again could we offer the woman and her families.