C-Section: Causes and Reasons

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According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 31.7% of all births in 2019 were by cesarean while 25.6% of the NTSV low-risk population had cesarean births. Many women underwent cesarean section delivery due to various causes and reasons. In this article, we will discuss how the Cesarean section works, and the common causes and reasons for having c-section delivery.

How Does the Cesarean Section Work?

A cesarean section delivery is an integral and life-saving surgical procedure for both mother and baby when possible complications exist during pregnancy or delivery. When surgeons carry out cesarean deliveries, they commonly use different surgical techniques and several types of incisions to access the abdominal cavity. Their surgical techniques should comply with particular basic requirements such as properly exposing the uterus, allowing the fetus to be easily accessed and extracted, minimizing the risk of post-surgical complications, and allowing for an aesthetically pleasing outcome.

The two types of cutaneous incisions: are transverse and longitudinal. A transverse incision is the most commonly used incision method carried out in major cesarean deliveries with the use of a technique introduced by Pfannenstiel in 1900. This technique involves the transverse cutting of the skin and subcutaneous tissue along the parasymphyseal fold of the abdomen, the Bumm pelvic line, along a straight or slightly curved cut approximately 15-cm long. On the other hand, a longitudinal incision has commonly been used to carry out a cesarean delivery in the longitudinal incision of the abdomen.

Causes and Reasons for Having C-Section Delivery 

What are the common causes, reasons, and other factors which may lead pregnant mothers from having C-section delivery? Below are the common causes and reasons for having C-section delivery:

  • Abnormal positioning – Babies must be positioned headfirst near the birth canal but some babies position their feet or butt toward the canal or position their shoulder or side first. C-section delivery is the safest birth method to deliver babies in abnormal positions. 
  • Birth defects – Doctors choose to deliver babies who are diagnosed with certain birth defects such as congenital heart diseases through a cesarean to lower delivery complications.
  • Fetal distress – If your baby is not getting enough oxygen, your doctor may choose to deliver via emergency cesarean.
  • Chronic health condition – If you have certain chronic health conditions like high blood pressure, heart disease, or gestational diabetes, your doctor may suggest that you will deliver via cesarean because vaginal delivery may be dangerous for you.
  • Cord prolapse – This condition occurs when the umbilical cord slips through the cervix before the baby is born which can lower blood flow to the baby. It puts your baby’s health at risk.
  • Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) – If you have too small a pelvis to deliver your baby vaginally or if your baby’s head is too large for the birth canal, you need to undergo C-section delivery.
  • Multiple pregnancies – If you are carrying twins, triplets, or multiples, you can be at risk during pregnancy and prolonged labor. Your babies may also be in an abnormal position. A c-section will assist you in safely delivering your babies.
  • Placenta issues – Several placenta issues that may affect your delivery are placenta previa, a condition when the low-lying placenta partially or fully covers the cervix or placenta abruption which is a condition when the placenta separates from the uterine lining that will cause your baby to lose oxygen.
  • Prolonged labor – According to CDC, nearly one-third of cesarean section deliveries are performed due to prolonged labor which happens when a mom is in labor for 14-20 hours or more.
  • Repeat cesarean – There are about 90% of moms who have had a C-section that can have a vaginal delivery for their next birth or VBAC as reported by the American Pregnancy Association. Consult with your doctor if it is safe for you to choose a VBAC or repeat C-section.


Cesarean section or C-section delivery is a crucial birth method that commonly uses various surgical procedures and techniques to safely deliver the baby such as the transverse and longitudinal incisions. Some of the causes, reasons, and other factors which lead to C-sections are multiple pregnancies, abnormal positioning, placenta issues, birth defects, and many others. In order to keep a safe pregnancy and delivery, take some nourishing folic acid supplements like our Belta Folic Acid supplement

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